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EPA Summary Report Africa 2013

10 field of mitigation technology. This activity is mostly focused on energy storage/hydrogen/fuel cell technologies (37 %) and renewable energy (25 %), in particular solar PV and solar thermal, followed by nuclear energy (20 %) and biomass/ waste/combustion/ CCS technologies (17 %), in particular biofuels. CET development in the field of efficient electricity generation/transmission/ distribution only plays a marginal role in Africa. In the global context, it is notable that inventive activities in the field of biofuels, nuclear, marine & tidal and energy from waste carry more relative weight in Africa than they do worldwide. Assessing Africa’s CET developments by measuring the relative technological advantage (RTA) in the various technologies, it was found that, despite the generally low inventive activity, the efforts made are disproportionately directed towards mitigation technologies. While the global growth rate of inventive activity in the field of mitigation technologies was 5 %, total inventive activity in Africa increased at a slightly faster rate of 9 %, and this figure rose to an extraordinary 59 % when looking at mitigation technology in isolation. In the 1980 – 2009 period Africa’s inventive activity only accounts for about 0.3 % of the global activity in mitigation technologies, and most of it took place in South Africa (84 %). While South Africa has been able to diversify into other inventive fields, the inventive activity in other major African inventor countries such as Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Kenya focuses on renewable energies. Overall, inventive activity and patenting is dominated by South Africa, which appears to plays a leading role in in co-invention, and in technology transfer of CCMT to Africa. Since 2003 South Africa has taken steps to mainstream renewable energies and use its significant clean energy sources including wind, solar, hydro and biomass, reducing its dependency on hard coal. Overall, less than 1 % of all mitigation technology patents are applied for in Africa. Only 10 % of African inventors apply for patent protection in Africa, the majority tending to seek protection in four other Major African inventor countries 1980–2009 (Y02 mitigation technologies, number of priorities) Count % Invention portfolio South Africa 553.3 84.2% Energy storage, hydrogen, fuel cells (40%), nuclear (25%), renewables (19%) Egypt 18.5 2.8% Renewables (70%, esp. marine & tidal, hydro conv., solar), energy storage, hydrogen, fuel cells (21%) Algeria 12.2 1.9% Renewables (66%, esp. solar thermal & PV), energy storage,hydrogen, fuel cells (18%), CCS (16%) Morocco 11.7 1.8% Renewables (54%, esp. solar, wind, hydro conv.), energy storage, hydrogen, fuel cells (50%) Kenya 7.7 1.2% Biofuels + energy from waste (65%), energy storage, hydrogen, fuel cells (28%) Ghana 6.3 1.0% Renewables (96%, esp. wind, marine & tidal) Burundi 6.0 0.9% Renewables (100%, esp. wind, solar thermal, geothermal) Mali 4.5 0.7% Senegal 4.0 0.6% Zimbabwe 4.0 0.6% Tunisia 3.8 0.6% Rest of Africa 25.5 3.9% Africa total 657 100%