11 regions: the United States (27 %), the EPO (24 %), Germany (13 %) and Canada (10 %). This appears to support the belief that Africa’s IP system requires further development to better support climate change related activities. The data shows that Africa has a relatively high proportion of patent applications for biofuels (0.14 % compared to 0.04 % worldwide). While other mitigation technologies like nuclear, CCS, marine & tidal and combustion are patented relatively frequently, patents for energy storage/ hydrogen/fuel cells and solar PV are less often sought in Africa in relative terms than they are worldwide. In addition, the results show that overall mitigation technology is protected more often in Africa than elsewhere (1.7 % in comparison to 1.2%worldwide). The majority of inventions in CCMT have been developed in OECD countries and, while the US and France were the most important countries of origin in the 1980s, Germany took pole position in the last decade. African countries have increased their share from less than 1 % to over 8 % in the same period. In the field of adaptation technologies, inventive activity in Africa focuses on water desalination (45 %), energy supply in remote locations (25 %), solar water treatment (14 %), rainwater collection (7 %) and solar/ wind-powered water pumping (7 %). Surprisingly, technologies that would be highly relevant for addressing several of Africa’s most pressing environmental needs, like solar cooking, efficient lighting for remote locations and solar/wind-powered water pumping, are rare. The African share in worldwide inventive activity is very low (0.26 %), and a higher share of African inventors of adaptation technology seek protection in Africa itself (81 %), compared to only 1 % who seek it worldwide. In contrast to the general trend of decreasing patent applications for mitigation technologies, the number of adaptation technologies for which patent protection was sought in Africa between 1980 and 2009 has increased by 17 % per year on average. Climate change mitigation technology, in particular, is developed through international research collaboration. The results show that 23 % of all African 2.0 % Canada 2.0 % Japan 2.0 % Korea 1.0 % Israel 5.0 % other OECD 2.0 % China 3.0 % ROW 4.0 % UK 13.0 % Other EU27 1.0 % Egypt 1.0 % Sub-Saharan Africa 0.25 % Algeria 1.0 % Morocco 8.0 % Africa 20.0 % USA 24.0 % Germany 4.75 % South Africa 14.0 % France Patenting in Africa by inventor country 2000 – 2009 (patent applications registered at African patent offices, by country of the inventor) The Figure shows data for 2000 – 2009. Few African inventions were patented in Africa prior to this period.