Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Spain Finland France Greece Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Monaco North Macedonia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Sweden Slovenia Slovakia San Marino Turkey United Kingdom Republic of Moldova - Validation state Morocco - Validation state Cambodia - Validation state Tunisia - Validation state Albania - Former extension state Bosnia and Herzegovina - Extension state Croatia - Former extension state North Macedonia - Former extension state Latvia - Former extension state Lithuania - Former extension state Montenegro - Extension state Romania - Former extension state Serbia - Former extension state Slovenia - Former extension state

This table contains a (not necessarily exhaustive) list of important national legal sources (laws, regulations, decrees, etc.) relevant for European patent applications and patents in the various EPC contracting states and the extension and validation states. Most of them are referred to again in the subsequent tables. The title of these legal sources is given in the official language of the state in question. Where necessary, a translation into the official language of the EPO in which this booklet is published is given underneath in italics in square brackets. To keep the table to a reasonable size, the "original title" in the case of states with more than one official language is given only in one of these languages. The titles of the extension and validation states' legal bases appear only as translated into the EPO official language of this booklet.

The dates on which the various items of referenced legislation entered into force have not been included, as this would have cluttered up the tables - especially in cases where some articles of certain laws and regulations entered into force at different times.

Where the Office knows of translations into one of the official languages of the EPO of the legal sources listed, these are referenced. English and French translations of legal texts relating to intellectual property can also be consulted in WIPO's electronic database "WIPO Lex" ( It should be noted, however, that these translations are not always up-to-date and that at all times only the original version given in the official publications is the authentic text.

The abbreviations used in the following tables have been introduced for the sake of clarity and do not always coincide with the official abbreviations used in the contracting states.


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