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Numbering system - Japan

Document types and kind codes

Kokai 
KOKAI
(A, U) - enlarge

  • unexamined patent publication (A)
  • unexamined utility model publication (U)


Kokoku
KOKOKU
(B, Y) - enlarge

  • examined patent publication (old law) (B)
  • examined utility model publication (old law) (Y)

Toroku
TOROKU
(B, U) - enlarge

  • granted patent publication (new law) (B)
  • granted utility model publication (new law) (U)

Kohyo
KOHYO
(A, T) - enlarge

  • PCT application entering national phase in Japan (A, T)

Saikohyo
SAIKOHYO
(A) - enlarge  

  • Japanese PCT application entering national phase in Japan (A)

Number formats

yy-nnnnnn

  • two digits for the year (y)
  • up to six digits for the number (n)
  • application number, unexamined publication number, examined publication number (old law)
  • from 2000 onwards: four-digit Western year (yyyy-nnnnnn)
nnnnnnn
  • seven digit number (n), no year
  • grant numbers

Japanese number formats (Patents)

OLD LAW:

  • application
    yy-123456
  • unexamined publication
    yy-123456
  • examined publication
    yy-123456
  • registration (no publication)
    no. > 1 000 000
NEW LAW (1996):

  • application
    yy-123456
  • unexamined publication
    yy-123456
  • granted patent (publication)
    no. > 2 500 000
first publication: 29 May 1996
document no.: 2 500 001


NOTE:
from 2000 onwards the four-digit Western year is used instead of the Japanese imperial year
 

Japanese number formats (Utility Models) 

 
OLD LAW:

  • application
    yy-123456
  • unexamined publication
    yy-123456
  • examined publication
    yy-123456
  • registration (no publication)
    1~approx 2 000 000

NEW LAW (1994):


  • application
    yy-123456
  • granted utility model publication (without examination)
    no. > 3 000 000
first publication: 26 July 1994
document no. 3 000 001

 

Japanese imperial years vs. Western years

SHOWA (SHO, S)

Showa

reign of Emperor Hirohito
1926 to 1989

HEISEI (HEI, H)

Heisei


reign of Emperor Akihito
1989 to date

REIWA (REI, R)

Reiwa


reign of Emperor Naruhito
1 May 2019 to date

SHOWA + 25 = Western year
HEISEI + 1988 = Western year
REIWA + 2018 = Western year

NOTE:

1) The last year SHOWA is the first year HEISEI (SHOWA 64 = HEISEI 01 = 1989).
2) The western year 2019 is until 30 April HEISEI 31, and starting from 1 May REIWA 1

 

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