14-15 November 2018
|European Case Law Identifier:||ECLI:EP:BA:2012:T112208.20120911|
|Date of decision:||11 September 2012|
|Case number:||T 1122/08|
|IPC class:||G06F 9/44
|Language of proceedings:||EN|
|Download and more information:||
|Title of application:||Method and apparatus for a user extensible event structure|
|Applicant name:||Computer Associates Think, Inc.|
|Relevant legal provisions:||
|Keywords:||Amended claims searched - no
Remittal for further prosecution - yes
Summary of Facts and Submissions
I. The appeal lies against the decision of the examining division, with written reasons dated 31 January 2008, to refuse the European patent application 99966713.2 for lack of an inventive step.
II. An appeal was filed on 10 April 2008 and the appeal fee was paid on the same day. A statement of grounds of appeal was filed on 10 June 2008. It was requested that the decision be set aside and that a patent be gran ted based on one of five sets of claims filed with the state ment of grounds of appeal, accor ding to the main and first to fourth auxiliary re quests, and, as the board understands the appellant's requests, in combi na tion with the pending application documents
description, pages 1, 2 dated 9 November 2005
3-14 as published
drawings, sheets 1/5-5/5 as published
III. With summons to oral proceedings, the board made refe rence to, inter alia, the following documents:
D1: Abelson H et al., "Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs", excerpt from pp. 212-215, The MIT Press, 1993
D3: Kent M, "A General-Arrays Implementation of Asso ci ation Lists", ACM SIGAPL APL Quote Quad, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 3-5, ACM Press, June 1993
D5: Platinum Technology: "Application Note: ProVision Network Monitor Integration with ProVision - Ver sion 4.2 and higher", 1 October 1998
The board raised a number of clarity objections and gave its pre liminary opinion according to which the main request and auxiliary requests 1, 2 and 4 lacked an inventive step over D5 in view of common knowledge as evident from D1 or D3, Article 56 EPC 1973, whereas the third auxiliary request would have to be remitted to the de part ment of first instance for further prose cu tion, in cluding presumably an additional search.
IV. In response to the summons, the appellant filed, for all five pending requests, amended sets of claims in ten ded to overcome the clarity objections. The board in formed the appellant that it was minded to remit the case for further prosecution on the basis of the third auxiliary request even though the clarity objec tions might not have all been overcome.
V. In view of this, the appellant withdrew all requests ex cept the third one, and further withdrew its re quest for oral proceedings conditional to the re mittal to the first instance based on the sole remaining request la belled "third auxil i a ry request". The oral procee dings were thus cancelled.
VI. Independent claims 1 and 11 of the remaining request read as follows:
"1. An event messaging method comprising:
extending an event structure representing an individual event, the event structure including a predefined field for storing information relating to an event, and further including a keys field array and a values field array, by:
submitting (510) a keyname and a corresponding value for the event structure;
determining (540) whether the keyname exists in the keys field array of the event structure;
if the keyname does not exist in the keys field array,
incrementing (550) an index of the event structure,
adding (560) the keyname to a position in the keys field array based on the index, and
adding (570) the corresponding value to a position in the values field array based on the index; and
if the keyname does exist in the keys field array,
determining (580) the position of a previously stored value in the values field array associated with the keyname, and
replacing (590) the previously stored value in the values field array with the corresponding value;
generating a message describing the event structure, wherein the message includes: descriptors of fields of the event structure; and the contents of the fields identified by the descriptors;
communicating the message from a first process to a second process; and
in the second process, populating a further event structure by:
searching the message for fields required by the further event structure; and
when the message does not comprise a field required by the further event structure, populating the further event structure with a default value based upon fields in the message."
"11. An event messaging apparatus comprising first and second processes, wherein the first process comprises:
means for extending an event structure representing an individual event, the event structure including a predefined field for storing information relating to an event, and further including a keys field array and a values field array, the means for extending comprising:
means for submitting (510) a keyname and a corresponding value for the event structure;
means for determining (540) whether the keyname exists in the keys field array of the event structure;
means for, if the keyname does not exist in the keys field array, incrementing (550) an index of the event structure, adding (560) the keyname to a position in the keys field array based on the index, and adding (570) the corresponding value to a position in the values field array based on the index; and
means for, if the keyname does exist in the keys field array, determining (580) the position of a previously stored value in the values field array associated with the keyname, and replacing (590) the previously stored value in the values field array with the corresponding value;
means for generating a message describing the event structure, wherein the message includes: descriptors of fields of the event structure; and the contents of the fields identified by the descriptors; and
means for communicating the message from the first to the second process,
and wherein the second process comprises means for po pu lating a further event structure by searching the message for fields required by the further event struc ture, wherein the means for populating a further event structure is operable to populate the further event struc ture with a default value based upon fields in the message when the message does not comprise a field re qui red by the further event structure."
Reasons for the Decision
1. Generally, the application relates to an event manage ment system for a distributed computing environment (see ori ginal description, p. 1, lines 7-23 and p. 2, lines 18-30).
1.1. Individual events in this context are repre sen ted as in stan ces of a predefined data type - referred to as "event structures" - with multiple fields (cf. p. 3, line 26 - p. 4, line 35). Some of these fields identify an event, some contain additional information about it (p. 3, lines 17-22). Amongst the identifying fields, there are two which jointly define a list of key-value pairs (p. 4, lines 15, 16 and 36-40); these are called, respectively, a "key fields array" and a "value array". One aspect of the claimed invention relates to the ex ten sion of an event structure by setting a given key to be associated with a given value.
1.2. Another aspect of the invention relates to the commu ni ca tion of events between different "processes" of the dis tributed system which, as the application points out, may support event structures in different ver sions, i.e. with different fields (p. 13, lines 9-11 and p. 14, lines 3-6). Communication of an event structure from a first to a second process requires the first process to pack (or "marshal") it into a message structure and the second process to unpack (i.e. unmarshal) it and "popu late" a new, local event structure (see e.g. p. 13, lines 11-15 and p. 13, lines 29 - p. 14, line 7). If the se cond process supports a newer version of event struc tures than the first process, with fields absent from the incoming message, a "compatibility mechanism" is invoked (p. 13, line 7 ff.) and these fields will re ceive a de fault value based upon other fields in the message (cf. p. 14, lines 6-7).
Article 123 (2) EPC
2. The board is satisfied that the invention according to independent claims 1 and 10 is disclosed in the parts of the original description just ci ted.
Clarity, Article 84 EPC 1973
3. The extension of an event structure by a new key-value pair according to claims 1 and 11 modifies the keys field array and the values field array but neither adds any new fields nor affects the value of the version num ber field (cf. p. 3, line 30). It follows that the two aspects of the invention (cf. points 1.1 and 1.2 above), the "compatibility me ch a nism" for handling different versions of event struc tures and the ope ra tion of "extending" an event struc ture, are essentially unrelated to each other. That said, the board deems it to be unclear that claim 11 specifies the "means for ex tending an event struc ture" to comprise the "means for generating a message" and the "means for communi cating the message" and that claim 1, analogously, specifies the step of "extending an event structure" to comprise the steps of "genera ting a message" and "communicating the message".
4. According to independent claims 1 and 11, when a given "keyname" does not exist in the event structure being extended, an index is incremented and the key name placed at the newly obtained position in the keys field array defined by the index. The skilled person would take this to mean that only allowable indexes are created, most probably only positive ones. This is in con flict with claims 6 and 16 accor ding to which an error message is provided when "the index is less than one". Claims 6 and 16 are thus unclear.
4.1. In the board's understanding, claims 1 and 11 are based on the function PtEventSetKeyValuePair (p. 11, lines 10-18 and p. 12, lines 23-29), which takes a key name and a value and generates a suitable index, where as claims 6 and 16 are based on PtSetKeyValueByIndex (p. 12, lines 15-22) which takes a key name, a value and an index and stores the key name and the value at the given index position in the arrays. The contra diction between the claims appears to be caused by the fact that the latter function needs an error message if it is called with a negative value, while the former does not because it determines the pertinent index itself.
5. In view of its finding on inventive step (see below), the board deems it inappropriate to dismiss the appeal based on these clarity problem which can, as it appears, be easily re solved.
Closest Prior Art
6. The claims subject to the refusal were directed towards method and apparatus "for extending an event structure" and covered only the first aspect of the invention as now claimed (point 1.1. above). On the understanding that the invention claimed then "lies in the field of data structures", the examining division based their assessment of inventive step on D1 as the closest prior art (see reasons, points 13.1 and 15-15.4). In the grounds of appeal (p. 3, 1st par., and p. 4, 2nd par.) the appellant refuted D1 as an unsuitable starting point because, inter alia, D1 "is not concerned with event hand ling and event structures".
6.1. While the board is not convinced by this argument for the claims as refused, which relate to method and apparatus of "ex tending an event structure", it does have its merits for the present, amended independent claims which relate to an event messa ging method and apparatus be tween processes possi bly requiring event structures with different fields.
6.2. For this reason, the board considers that the most sui table starting point for the assessment of novelty and in ventive step is D5 rather than D1.
Inventive Step, Main Request
7. D5 addresses event handling in a distributed envi ron ment as discussed in the application and, moreover, discusses an event management tool related to the one men tioned in the application (see p. 1, line 13).
7.1. D5 discloses which fields should be "sent as part of [a] published event" (p. 5, last two lines; p. 6). The skilled person would, in the board's judgment, take this to define an "event struc ture" with fields "rela ting to an event". D5 fur ther defines that these field should comprise "Key Name/Value Pairs" (p. 6, last row in the table) and that, for different event types, diffe rent keys and a diffe rent num ber of keys may be defined.
7.2. D5 also discloses that events are communi ca ted across the distributed environ ment, i.e. from a first to a second process as claimed (see e.g. p. 3 and p.4, last two pars.)
8. Independent claims 1 and 10 thus differ from D5 by the following features:
i) the implementation of key/value pairs are in terms of two arrays, a "keys field array" and a "values field array";
ii) a manner of extending the event structure by a new key/value pair; and
iii) details about generating a message representing the event structure and "populating a further event structure" in the second process.
8.1. The feature under i) represents an implementation of the key/val ue list specified in D5. The features under ii) imple ment a way of setting and/or updating the key/ value pairs in an event structure. In the board's view these two address the prob lem of imple mening a data type "event structure" as specified in D5.
8.2. The features under iii) address the problem of commu ni cating events between processes with possibly diffe rent definitions of event structures.
8.3. In the board's view, the problems solved by the fea tures under i) and ii) as opposed to those under iii) are essentially unrelated so that their inventive merit may be assessed separately.
Implementing event structures
9. The board considers that the features under i) and ii) re pre sent rather mundane and well-known pro gramming patterns from which the skilled person would choose to implement the event structure according to D5.
9.1. In the board's view, the skilled person will be aware that the key/value pairs represent a "mapping" from keys to values and will consider known options for implemen ting such mappings. Doing this the skilled per son will realise that the implementation of fundamental data types such as these belongs to the basic knowledge in the art of programming and to the syllabus of typi cal programming courses.
9.2. D1 is from a textbook for students of programming used in this context and discloses an implementation of a key/value "table" and an operation of "extending" this table with a new key/value pair according to an algo rith mic specification as claimed (see p. 215, 1st par.).
9.3. That D1 happens to use the programming language Lisp (it actually uses a dialect of Lisp called Scheme) is ir re le vant in this respect. While Lisp by its very na ture as a "List Processing" language may favour list-based data structures, the teaching of D1 can easily be adap ted to other programming languages, too. Indeed, it is consi de red a straightforward task for the skilled per son to im plement the "insert" specification accor ding to D5 (loc. cit., p. 215, 1st par.) in another pro gram ming language.
9.4. D1 happens to implement the key/value pairs as a list of pairs. While this is a preferred way of implementing mappings in Lisp, it is well-known that "association lists" can be equivalently represented as a pair of lists, too (cf. e.g. D3, p. 3, right col., lines 10-20). It is well-known that these representations, while functio nally equiva lent, may be interestingly different in supporting cer tain operations more directly (and thus more efficiently) than others. Thus, in a concrete case the skilled person might prefer one representa tion over the other depending on which operations on the da ta structure should be fast (for instance because they will be frequently used). If such considerations happen to be irrelevant, the skilled person may also merely decide by convenience or personal preference. In the board's view it is a matter of routine for the skilled person to ba lance the requirements and make suitable de cisions accor ding to circumstances when designing the data types for an application of interest.
9.5. The board thus considers that the features under ii) re present a standard way of specifying the "exten sion" of a key/val ue list by a new key/value pair (see D1) and that the implementation of the key/value pairs in terms of a pair of "arrays", i.e. feature i), rather than an array of pairs is an obvious alternative for the skilled person (see D3).
Communication of event structures between processes
10. Regarding the features under iii), the board under stands the deci sion under appeal as follows: It is common know ledge to use serialisation/marshalling to trans mit data struc tures between computers, and it is implied by this ope ration that the sender generates a message describing a given data structure and the recei ver "populates" - i.e. re-creates - a data structure according to this message (cf. reasons 16.1, items (a) and (b) and 16.3, first dash). And it is obvious to use a default value "in the given situation", especially con sidering that "no indi ca tion is given how to deter mine the default value" (rea sons 16.1, item (c) and 16.3, second dash).
11. The board agrees that serialisation and marshalling are common techniques to communicate data structures be tween processes and considers that applying such known tech niques to D5 would be obvious for the skilled person given the indication that events need to be communicated between processes (see point 7.2 above).
11.1. Marshalling (and, likewise, seralisation) is commonly understood to denote the process of transfor ming a data object from a (high-level) data format in local memory into a (low-level) transportable format. The in verse process (un mar shalling) is used to produce a corres pon ding data object in local memory at the recei ver side. The board agrees with the decision under appeal that this covers the claimed steps and means of generating a message, communicating it and "populating" a new data structure at the receiving end.
11.2. To the best of the board's knowledge, however, mar shalling normally assumes that sender and receiver support the same data types and that, hence, commu ni cation between processes supporting incongruent data types, such as event structures in different versions, does not fall under the conventional meaning of seria li sation or marshalling.
11.3. The board can only speculate whether in a dis tri buted compu ting environment such as that of D5 the communica tion of data in the presence of incongruent data struc tures is a known issue, and whether it has been addressed in the prior art or how. Therefore, even the undis pu ted alle ga tion from the de cision under appeal that mar shalling is well-known seems in suffi cient to show lack of an inventive step.
11.4. Hence, the board concludes that claims 1 and 10 show an inventive step over D1 in combination with any of D3, D5 or common knowledge in the art, Article 56 EPC 1973.
Scope of the search
12. According to the decision under appeal (point 18.1), the examining division had "good reason to believe" that the fea tures under iii) were not searched.
12.1. The board finds this assumption plausible. The original application contained only a single claim, which corres ponds to claim 1 of the main request, whereas all other claims are based on features taken from the description, which, moreover, relate to an issue unrelated to the one originally claimed (see also point 3 above).
12.2. The decision further explains (point 18.2) that the exa mi ning division did not consider it appropriate to carry out an additional search because the additional features were "sufficiently known from or obvious on the basis of common general knowledge".
12.3. Since the pertinent features appear not to have been searched the board has no basis to come to a final conclusion on the inventive merit of claims 1 and 10.
12.4. Therefore, the case must be remitted to the first in stance for further prosecution, especially for an addi tional search to be carried out and to deal with the out standing clarity objections (see points 3 and 4 above).
For these reasons it is decided that:
1. The decision under appeal is set aside.
2. The case is remitted to the department of first in stance for further prosecution.