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Guidelines for Examination

Determination of the closest prior art 

The closest prior art is that which in one single reference discloses the combination of features which constitutes the most promising starting point for an obvious development leading to the invention. In selecting the closest prior art, the first consideration is that it should be directed to a similar purpose or effect as the invention or at least belong to the same or a closely related technical field as the claimed invention. In practice, the closest prior art is generally that which corresponds to a similar use and requires the minimum of structural and functional modifications to arrive at the claimed invention (see T 606/89). In some cases there are several equally valid starting points for the assessment of inventive step. If a patent is to be granted, it may be necessary to apply the problem-and-solution approach to each of these starting points in turn. In the event of refusal, however, it is sufficient to show, on the basis of one relevant piece of prior art, that the claimed subject-matter lacks an inventive step.

The closest prior art must be assessed from the skilled person's point of view on the day before the filing or priority date valid for the claimed invention.

In identifying the closest prior art, account should be taken of what the applicant himself acknowledges in his description and claims to be known. Any such acknowledgement of known art should be regarded by the examiner as being correct, unless the applicant states he has made a mistake (see C-IV, 7.2).