1. Introduction

Art. 53 EPC defines three exceptions to patentability: (a) inventions the commercial exploitation of which would be contrary to 'ordre public' or morality; (b) plant varieties or animal species or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals; this does not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof; (c) methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy and diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body; this does not apply to products, in particular substances or compositions, for use in any of these methods.

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