This alphabetical keyword index is not exhaustive.

Identification of documents in the search report   B-X, 9.1

Bibliographic elements   B‑X, 9.1.1

"Corresponding documents"   B‑X, 9.1.2

Languages of the documents cited   B‑X, 9.1.3

Supplementary European search report   B‑X, 9.1.4

Identification of invention   A-IV, 3.1

Identification of relevant passages in prior-art documents   B-X, 9.4

Identification of the patent application and type of search report   B-X, 4

Impartiality of the examining or opposition division   E-XI

Implicit disclosure and parameters   G-VI, 6

Implicit features   F-IV, 4.5.4

Implicit features or well-known equivalents   G‑VI, 2

Inadmissibility at a later stage   D-IV, 5.1

Inclusion in the file of any email exchange   C-VII, 3.3

Inclusion of additional features   H-V, 3.2

Intermediate generalisations   H‑V, 3.2.1

Inconsistencies   F-IV, 4.3

Incorrect compound records in online databases   B-VI, 6.5

Incorrect designation   A-III, 5.5

Incorrect preclassification   B-V, 2.1

Independent and dependent claims   B-III, 3.7, F-IV, 3.4

Kinds of claim   F‑IV, 3.4

Subject of the search   B‑III, 3.7

Independent claims   

Independent claims containing a reference to another claim or to features from a claim of another category   F‑IV, 3.8

Number of independent claims   F‑IV, 3.2

Plurality of independent claims in different categories   F‑V, 3.2.2

Plurality of independent claims in the same category   F‑V, 3.2.1


Indication of amendments and their basis under Rule 137(4)   H‑III, 2.1

Amendments withdrawn or superseded in the Rule 137(4) period   H‑III, 2.1.2

Rule 137(4) and oral proceedings   H‑III, 2.1.3

Rule 137(4) communication and response thereto   H‑III, 2.1.1

Transitional provisions relating to Rule 137(4)   H‑III, 2.1.4

Indication of the amendments made in the requests and of their basis   H‑III, 3.3.1

Indication of the contracting states   A‑III, 11.3.6

Indication of the purpose of payment in the case of claims fees   A‑X, 7.3

Claims fees payable before the grant of the European patent   A‑X, 7.3.2

Claims fees payable on filing the European patent application   A‑X, 7.3.1

Indication of the purpose of the payment in the case of designation fees   A‑X, 7.2

Indication that a European patent is sought   A‑II, 4.1.1

Indicators   G-VII, An.

Application of known measures?   G‑VII, An., 1

Obvious combination of features?   G‑VII, An., 2

Obvious selection?   G‑VII, An., 3

Overcoming a technical prejudice?   G‑VII, An., 4

Secondary indicators   G‑VII, 10

Industrial application   B-VIII, 1, D-III, 5, F-II, 4.9, G-I, 1, G-II, 5.2, G-III, G-III, 1

Description (formal requirements)   F-II, 4.9

Industrial application vs. exclusion under Art. 52(2)   G‑III, 3

Method of testing   G‑III, 2

Patentability   G-I, 1, G‑III

Sequences and partial sequences of genes   G‑III, 4

Influencing the speed of examination proceedings   C-VI, 2

Informal nature of consultations   C-VII, 2.3

Information   A-XI, 1

Communication of information contained in files   A‑XI, A‑XI, 3

Communication under Rule 71(3) other information in the communication under Rule 71(3)   C‑V, 1.5

Database management systems and information retrieval   G‑II, 3.6.4

Information as to means of redress   E‑X, 5

Information concerning the applicant   A‑II, 4.1.2

Information modelling, activity of programming and programming languages   G‑II, 3.6.2

Information on prior art   B-XI, 9, C-III, 6, E‑IX,

Requesting information on prior art (not confined to priority)   C‑III, 6

Information on the applicant   A‑III, 4.2.1

Information to the public   D‑I, 8

Missing information   A‑IV, 4.2

Presentation of information   G-II, 3.7

Sequence information filed under Rule 56   A‑IV, 5.1

Supplementary technical information   H‑V, 2.3

Infringement, technical opinion for a national court trying an infringement action   E-XIII, 1

Initial processing and formal examination   E-IX, 2.1.2

Initiation of exchanges by email   C-VII, 3.1

Insertion of letters and words   C-V, An., 1

Insignificant amounts   A-X, 10.1.3

Refund   A-X, 10.1.3

Insistence on unallowable amendments   H-II, 3.4

Inspection of files   A-XI, A-XI, 1, A-XI, 2, A-XI, 2.1, E-IX, 2.10

Communication of information contained in the files   A‑XI, 3

Conducting file inspections   A‑XI, 2.2

Confidentiality of the request   A‑XI, 2.4

Consultation of the European Patent Register   A‑XI, 4

Documents open to file inspection   A‑XI, 2.1

Exclusion from inspection of files   A-XI, 2.3

File inspection before publication of the application   A‑XI, 2.5

Issuance of certified copies   A‑XI, 5

Publication of bibliographic data before publication of the application   A‑XI, 2.6

Restrictions to file inspection   A‑XI, 2.3

Instructions in Chapter   

Instructions in Chapter A-II ("Filing of applications and examination on filing")   E‑IX, 2.2

Instructions in Chapter A-III ("Examination of formal requirements")   E‑IX, 2.3

Abstract   E‑IX, 2.3.10

Claim to priority   E‑IX, 2.3.5

Claims fee   E‑IX, 2.3.8

Designation fee   E‑IX, 2.3.11

Designation of inventor   E‑IX, 2.3.4

Drawings   E‑IX, 2.3.9

Physical requirements   E‑IX, 2.3.2

Prohibited matter   E‑IX, 2.3.7

Renewal fees   E‑IX, 2.3.12

Representation, address for correspondence   E‑IX, 2.3.1

Request for grant   E‑IX, 2.3.3

Title of the invention   E‑IX, 2.3.6

Instructions in Chapter A-IV ("Special provisions")   E‑IX, 2.4

Biological material   E‑IX, 2.4.4

Certificate of exhibition   E‑IX, 2.4.3

Divisional applications   E‑IX, 2.4.1

Sequence listings   E‑IX, 2.4.2

Instructions in Chapter A-VI ("Publication of application; request for examination and transmission of the dossier to examining division")   E‑IX, 2.5

Publication of the international application   E‑IX, 2.5.1

Request for examination   E‑IX, 2.5.2

Supplementary European search   E‑IX, 2.5.3


Insufficient disclosure   F‑III, 3

Cases of partially insufficient disclosure   F‑III, 5

Insufficient disclosure of the invention   D‑V, 4

Lack of support vs. insufficient disclosure   F‑IV, 6.4

Insufficient funds   A‑X, 4.2.4

Insufficient grounds for lack of unity   F‑V, 2.1

Insufficient prior-art disclosures   B‑VI, 6.4

Interlocutory decisions   E-X, 3

Interlocutory revision   E-XII, 7

Reimbursement of appeal fees   E‑XII, 7.3

Remittal to the board of appeal   E‑XII, 7.2


Intermediate and final products   F‑V, 3.2.7

Intermediate documents   B‑VI, 5.2, B‑X, 9.2.4

Intermediate generalisations   H‑V, 3.2.1

Intermediate publication of another European application   F‑VI, 2.4.2

Intermediate publication of the contents of the priority application   F‑VI, 2.4.1


International (PCT) searches   B‑II, 4.4

International application   H‑IV, 2.3.4

Copy of the international application   E‑IX, 2.1.2

Determination of filing date in the case of erroneously filed elements or parts of the international application   E‑IX, 2.9.4

Filing   E-IX, 1

International applications (Euro-PCT applications)   C‑IX, 4

International applications with supplementary search   F‑V, 7.2

International applications without supplementary search   F‑V, 7.1

Potentially conflicting European and international applications   B‑VI, 4.1

Publication of the international application   E‑IX, 2.5.1

Published international applications (WO) as "E" documents   B‑VI, 4.1.2

Translation   E-IX, 2.1.1, E-IX, 2.5.1, E-X

Translation of the international application   E‑IX, 2.1.3

International exhibitions   G‑V, 4

International preliminary examination   E-IX, 1, E-X

International preliminary examination report (IPER)   F‑V, 7.3

Reduction of the examination fee where the international preliminary examination report is being drawn up by the EPO   A‑X, 9.3.2

International search report (Amendments made in response to the WO‑ISA, IPER or supplementary ~)    C‑III, 2.2

International Searching Authority   

EPO as International Searching Authority   E-IX, 1

International-type searches   B-II, 4.5

Internet disclosures   B-VI, 7, G-IV, 7.5

Burden of proof   G‑IV, 7.5.3

Disclosures which have no date or an unreliable date   G‑IV, 7.5.4

Establishing the publication date   G‑IV, 7.5.1

Problematic cases   G‑IV, 7.5.5

Standard of proof   G‑IV, 7.5.2

Technical details and general remarks   G‑IV, 7.5.6

Interpretation   F-IV, 4.2

Interpretation of claims   B‑III, 3.2

Ascertaining the existence of a fallback position   B‑III, 3.2.5

Claims with explicit references to the description or drawings   B‑III, 3.2.1

Clarity and interpretation of claims   F‑IV, 4

Use of the description and/or drawings to establish definitions of clear terms given a definition different from their usual meaning   B‑III, 3.2.4

Use of the description and/or drawings to establish definitions of unclear terms not defined in the claims   B‑III, 3.2.3

Use of the description and/or drawings to identify the technical problem   B‑III, 3.2.2

Interpretation of expressions stating a purpose   F‑IV, 4.13

Interpretation of expressions such as "Apparatus for ...", "Product for ... "   F‑IV, 4.13.1

Interpretation of expressions such as "Method for ..."   F‑IV, 4.13.3

Interpretation of means-plus-function features ("means for ... ")   F‑IV, 4.13.2

Interpretation of relative terms   F‑IV, 4.6.2

Interpretation of terms such as "about", "approximately" or "substantially"   F‑IV, 4.7.1

Interpretation of terms such as identity and similarity in relation to amino or nucleic acid sequences   F‑IV, 4.24

Interruption   E-VII, 1

Cases in which the proceedings may be interrupted   E‑VII, 1.1

Date of interruption   E‑VII, 1.3

Interruption of proceedings   E‑VII, 1.3

Interruption of time limits   A‑IV, 2.2.4, D‑VII, 4.3

Procedure where the patent proprietor is not entitled   D‑VII, 4.3

Stay of proceedings for grant   A‑IV, 2.2.4

Interruption, stay and consolidation of the proceedings   E‑VII

Consolidation of proceedings   E‑VII, 4

Interruption   E‑VII, 1

Stay of proceedings under Rule 14 due to pending national entitlement proceedings   E‑VII, 2

Stay of proceedings when a referral to the Enlarged Board of Appeal is pending   E‑VII, 3

Responsible department   E‑VII, 1.2

Resumption of proceedings   E‑VII, 1.4

Resumption of time limits   E‑VII, 1.5

Intervention of the assumed infringer   D-I, 5, D-VII, 6

Introduction of further examples and new effects   H-V, 2.2

Invention   G-II

Amendments in the case of non-unity no restriction to a single invention searched   H‑II, 7.3

Burden of proof as regards the possibility of performing and repeating the invention   F‑III, 4

Cases where the invention is realised in a distributed computing environment   F‑IV, 3.9.3

Changing from one searched invention to another   C‑III, 3.4

Claims directed to computer-implemented inventions   F‑IV, 3.9

Description   F-II, 1, F-II, 4.1

Determination of the invention first mentioned in the claims   F‑V, 3.4

Difficulties in performing the invention   F‑III, 5.3

Disclosure   A-IV, 4.2, B-III, 3.6, E-IX, 2.4.4, F-II, 4.1, F-III, 1, F-III, 2, F-III, 3, F-IV, 6.4

Documents relating to the theory or principle underlying the invention   B‑X, 9.2.5

Documents relevant only to other inventions   B‑VII, 1.3

Examination practice   G‑II, 2

Examination procedure no examination of multiple inventions in EP phase   E‑IX, 4.2

Exceptions to patentability   G‑II, 4

Excision of other inventions   C‑III, 3.2

Exclusions and exceptions for biotechnological inventions   G‑II, 5

Features of the invention   F‑IV, 2.1, F‑IV, 2.2, F‑IV, 4.5.1, F‑V, 2, G‑I, 2

Further requirements of an invention   G‑I, 2

General statements, "spirit of the invention", claim-like clauses   F‑IV, 4.4

Grouping of inventions   F‑V, 3.2

Identification of invention   A‑IV, 3.1

Industrial application   F-II, 4.9, G-III, 1

Insufficient disclosure of the invention   D‑V, 4

Invention to be examined   C‑II, 1.3

Inventions relating to biological material   F‑III, 6

Biological material   F‑III, 6.1

Deposit of biological material   F‑III, 6.3

Euro-PCT cases   F‑III, 6.5

Priority claim   F‑III, 6.4

Public availability of biological material   F‑III, 6.2

Inventive step   B-X, 9.2.1, F-IV, 4.22, G-VII, 1

IPC classification in cases of a lack of unity of invention   B‑V, 3.3

IPC classification when the scope of the invention is not clear (e.g. a partial search)   B‑V, 3.2

Limitation to searched invention   C‑III, 3.1

Limitation to searched invention no additional search fees paid   C‑III, 3.1.1

List of exclusions   G‑II, 3

Multiple priorities claimed for different inventions in the application with an intermediate publication of one of the inventions   F‑VI, 2.4.3

Novelty   F-IV, 4.22

Novelty of an invention   F‑IV, 4.22, G‑IV, 1

Objections to unsearched inventions   F‑V, 5.2

Only variants of the invention are incapable of being performed   F‑III, 5.1

Origin of an invention   G‑VII, 9

Patentable biotechnological inventions   G‑II, 5.2

Requirement of unity of invention   F‑V, 2

Restriction to a single, searched invention   H‑II, 7.1

Restriction to an unsearched invention   H‑II, 7.2

Same invention   F‑VI, 2.2

Selection inventions   G‑VI, 8, G‑VII, 12

Technical features   F-IV, 2.1, F-IV, 2.2, F-IV, 4.5.1, F-V, 2, G-I, 2

Title   A-III, 1.2, A-III, 7.1, A-III, 7.2, B-X, 7, F-II, 3

Title of the invention   A‑III, 7, E‑IX, 2.3.6

Unity   B-II, 4.2, B-III, 3.12, B-VII, 1.1, B-VIII, 3.4, B-VIII, 4.5, C-III, 3.1, C-III, 3.1.1, C-IX, 1.2, D-V, 2.2, F-IV, 3.2, F-IV, 3.3, F-IV, 3.7, F-V, 1, F-V, 2, F-V, 2.1, F-V, 3.2.1, G-VI, 7.1

Unity of invention   B‑II, 4.2, B‑III, 3.12, B‑VII, B‑VII, 1.1, B‑VIII, 3.4, B‑VIII, 4.5, C‑III, 3, C‑III, 3.1, C‑III, 3.1.1, C‑IX, 1.2, D‑V, 2.2, F‑IV, 3.2, F‑IV, 3.3, F‑IV, 3.7, F‑V, F‑V, 1, F‑V, 2, F‑V, 2.1, F‑V, 3.2.1, G‑VI, 7.1

Inventive step   B-X, 9.2.1, F-IV, 4.22, G-I, 1, G-IV, 5.1, G-VII, G-VII, 1

Arguments and evidence submitted by the applicant   G‑VII, 11

Categories of documents (X, Y, P, A, D, etc.)   B-X, 9.2.1

Claims in different categories   G‑VII, 14

Combination vs. juxtaposition or aggregation   G‑VII, 7

Combining pieces of prior art   G‑VII, 6

Conflict with other European applications   G-IV, 5.1

Date of filing   G‑VII, 2

Dependent claims   G‑VII, 14

Documents defining the state of the art and not prejudicing novelty or inventive step   B‑X, 9.2.2

"Ex post facto" analysis   G‑VII, 8

Examples relating to the requirement of inventive step   G‑VII, An.

Indicators   G‑VII, An.

Invention   G-VII, 1

Inventive step assessment in the field of biotechnology   G‑VII, 13

Inventive step of antibodies   G‑II, 5.6.2

Obviousness   G‑VII, 4

Origin of an invention   G‑VII, 9

Patentability   G-I, 1, G‑VII

Person skilled in the art   G‑VII, 3

Problem-solution approach   G‑VII, 5

Secondary indicators   G‑VII, 10

Selection inventions   G‑VII, 12

State of the art   G‑VII, 2

Sufficiency of disclosure and inventive step   F‑III, 12


Cancellation of the designation of the inventor   A-III, 5.5

Designation   A-III, 5.1, A-III, 5.2, A-XI, 2.3

Designation of inventor   A‑III, 5, A‑IV, 1.5, E‑IX, 2.3.4

Form   A-III, 5.1

Parts of the file not for inspection   A-XI, 2.3

Period   E-IX, 2.3.4

Waiver of right to be mentioned as inventor   A‑III, 5.2

Invitation   A-II, 5.1

Exceptions where a reply to the Rule 161(1) invitation is not required   E‑IX, 3.3

Invitation to file amended documents   D‑VI, 4.2

Invitation to file authorisation and legal consequence in case of non-compliance   A‑VIII, 1.8

Invitation to file comments and amendments   C‑III, 4.2

Invitation to file observations   D‑VI, 3

Opposition division's communications   D‑VI, 3.1

Summons to oral proceedings   D‑VI, 3.2

Invitation to file the translation   A‑VII, 1.4

Invitation to file the translation before examination   A‑III, 6.8.1

Invitation to file the translation in examination/opposition   A‑III, 6.8.2

Invitation to indicate subject-matter for search   B‑VIII, 3.1

Invitation to indicate which independent claim to search   B‑VIII, 4.1

Invitation to pay additional search fees combined with invitation to restrict the scope of the search   C‑III, 3.1.3

Invitation to pay further search fees   B‑VII, 1.2

Applicant has not paid all additional search fees   B‑VII, 1.2.3

Cascading non-unity   B‑VII, 1.2.2

Invitation to the patent proprietor to submit comments and communication of opposition to the other parties concerned by the formalities officer   D‑IV, 5.2

Invitation under both Rule 62a(1) and Rule 63(1)   B‑VIII, 5

Invitation under Rule 70a(1)   C‑II, 3.3

Reply to the invitation under Rule 62a(1)   B‑VIII, 4.2

Reply to the invitation under Rule 63(1)   B‑VIII, 3.2

Without invitation   A‑II, 5.2

IPC classification   

IPC classification of the application   B‑V, 3

IPC classification in cases of a lack of unity of invention   B‑V, 3.3

IPC classification of late-published search reports   B‑V, 3.1

IPC classification when the scope of the invention is not clear (e.g. a partial search)   B‑V, 3.2

Verification of the IPC classification   B‑V, 3.4

Irregularities in the notification   E-II, 2.6

Irrelevant matter   F-II, 4.4

Irrelevant or unnecessary matter   F-II, 7.4

Issuance of certified copies   A-XI, A-XI, 5

Certified copies of documents from the files or of other documents   A‑XI, 5.1

Communication of information contained in the files   A‑XI, 3

Consultation of the European Patent Register   A‑XI, 4

Inspection of files   A‑XI, 2

Priority documents issued by the EPO   A‑XI, 5.2

Issue of communications by the formalities officer as a result of examination for deficiencies   D-IV, 1.3

Communication in the event of deficiencies as described in D-IV, 1.2.1 which, if not remedied, will lead to the opposition being deemed not to have been filed   D‑IV, 1.3.1

Communication in the event of deficiencies as described in D-IV, 1.2.2 which, if not remedied, will lead to rejection of the opposition as inadmissible   D‑IV, 1.3.2

Extent of the formalities officer's obligation to issue the above communications   D‑IV, 1.3.3

Issuing a further communication (no refusal)   C-V, 15.4

Issuing a self-contained decision   C-V, 15.3

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