The EPO Chief Economist unit aims to provide high-level expertise and analysis and to foster well-informed policy debate on issues relating to patents, innovation and economic growth. It develops projects to help the EPO understand better how patents are used and what their economic impact is. Externally it promotes the EPO as a major player in the public arena (in academia, expert forums and the press, among policymakers, etc.).
Innovation is central to the transition to low-carbon energy (LCE) technologies. Traditional renewable energy sources (wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal) have reached maturity and patenting activity here is slowing. This report shows the main drivers for LCE innovation today are cross-cutting technologies like batteries, hydrogen, smart grids and carbon capture, as well as in end-use applications like electric vehicles.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and larger firms in the European Union perform very differently with regard to their ownership and use of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Although only a smaller proportion of SMEs (ca 9%) own or use patents, trade marks or designs when compared to larger firms (ca 60%), the advantage that these IPRs provide in terms of revenue per employee is far greater for SMEs (+68%) than for larger firms (+18%).
The new data-driven economy is enabled by constellations of smart, connected devices, by faster wireless internet, by "big data" and artificial intelligence. Annual growth rates for patent applications for these technologies are around 20% - some five times greater than for all technologies as a whole. Whilst some sectors are becoming obsolete, others are emerging, with leadership in a variety of fields changing rapidly.
Universities and public research organisations are important users of the European patent system. This study reports how they valorise their European patents and also sheds a light on the challenges they face bringing their technologies to the market.
EPO’s first joint study with the International Energy Agency underlines the key role that battery innovation is playing in the transition to clean energy technologies. It provides global data and analysis based on international patent families filed in the field of electricity storage since 2000.
The Chief Economist unit aims to produce evidence-based research and advanced analysis on a range of policy issues relevant to the EPO.