Rule 28[ 39 ]
Exceptions to patentability

Under Article 53(a), European patents shall not be granted in respect of biotechnological inventions which, in particular, concern the following:
processes for cloning human beings; 
processes for modifying the germ line genetic identity of human beings; 
uses of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes; 
processes for modifying the genetic identity of animals which are likely to cause them suffering without any substantial medical benefit to man or animal, and also animals resulting from such processes. 
Under Article 53(b), European patents shall not be granted in respect of plants or animals exclusively obtained by means of an essentially biological process.
Amended by decision of the Administrative Council CA/D 6/17 of 29.06.2017 (OJ EPO 2017, A56), which entered into force on 01.07.2017.
See decision of the Enlarged Board of Appeal G 2/06 (Annex I).
See opinion of the Enlarged Board of Appeal G 3/19 (Annex I).
Version history +
13.12.2007 - 30.06.2017 
Decision of the Administrative Council of 07.12.2006 (CA/D 10/06), (OJ EPO 2007, 8 and Special edition 1/2007)
01.07.2017 -  
CA/D 6/17 (OJ EPO 2017, A56)
Cross-reference list
EPC EPC 1973
R. 28R. 23d

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